France’s Land Backed Banknotes

        In 1789, France overthrew its government, the replacement for which would be a work in progress for years. The various regimes established in the French Revolution faced daunting fiscal challenges, the very tremors that brought down the old regime. As with many states in financial distress, France turned to the debt markets first and the

Silver Thursday

           Inflation erodes the buying power of money and consequently the real value of income producing investments. In the 1970s, rates of inflation rose precipitously around the world. This reduced not just the value of money and long maturity fixed-income securities but even hurt economic performance and an array of other financial assets, including stocks, which

Financing America’s War of Independence

        Relative to the resources at their disposal, the struggle for independence by the American colonists was a massive undertaking. Not only did war mean bloodshed and material hardship, but in 18th century America, it also meant building from scratch the institutions necessary to fight a war. New diplomatic, military, and financial institutions needed to be

Gold’s Black Friday

           Imagine a cabal of speculators pushing the limits of legality, or even exceeding them, intent on generating great profits for themselves in the blink of an eye. Such stories are many in the history of finance. From insider trading to market manipulation, the pressure to outperform, or even just the allure of riches, have brought